UK new build plans

Energy companies are currently planning to build up to 19GW of new nuclear power capacity in the UK, with the first new reactors expected to be operational in the mid-2020s. This new generation of nuclear power stations will require a total investment of at least £70 billion.

The UK currently has 15 reactors with a total generating capacity of 10 gigawatts of electricity (GWe). These stations generate around a fifth of the UK’s electricity – yet all but one is scheduled to be retired by 2030. The exception is Sizewell B, the UK’s only pressurised water reactor (PWR), which began operations in 1995.

A government review of energy policy in 2006 gave the green light to a new generation of nuclear power. Planning and design certification laws were streamlined to support new build, but any new reactors must be wholly financed and built by the private sector with no direct subsidy.

According to a 2012 study from IPPR commissioned by EDF Energy, investment in new nuclear power stations could raise UK GDP by over £5 billion, create 32,500 jobs, and increase nuclear industry exports by up to £900 million.

Reactors

Four reactor designs are being formally considered for UK new-build: Areva’s EPR (originally the European Pressurised Reactor), Westinghouse’s AP1000, Hitachi-GE’s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), and the Chinese Hualong HPR1000.

Both the EPR and AP1000 are generation III+ PWRs, offering a range of safety, economic and operational improvements over previous designs.

The EPR has an output of 1600MWe. Four EPRs are under construction in Finland, France and China.

The AP1000 has an output of 1150MWe. Construction is underway for AP1000 reactors on two sites in China and two sites in the US.

Both PWRs have completed a generic design assessment (GDA) by the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) and Environment Agency. This assessment is intended to support the construction of a number of new nuclear power stations by approving a standard reactor design which can be built in different locations by different developers. Each build will still require a site-specific licence.

The Hitachi-GE ABWR is a significantly different design to the Areva and Westinghouse PWRs, operating at lower pressures and temperatures but requiring much larger pressure vessels. The 1300MWe ABWR began the GDA process in January 2013, following Hitachi’s purchase of UK developer Horizon Nuclear Power, and is due to complete in December 2017. Four ABWRs are already in operation in Japan.

The 1170MWe Hualong HPR1000 is a generation III PWR, currently being deployed at three sites in China. It entered the second phase of GDA in November 2017, with CGN aiming for approval within five years.

See the ONR’s GDA pages for the latest information.

Development sites

The UK Government’s energy national policy statement in June 2011 confirmed that eight sites are suitable for new nuclear power stations by 2025 (see map). All are the sites of existing nuclear plant. Five of the sites have been acquired by new build developers.

EDF Energy is proposing to build two Areva EPRs at Hinkley Point, Somerset, and two at Sizewell, Suffolk. EDF also proposes to work with investment partner China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) to deploy the Chinese Hualong HPR1000 reactor at Bradwell, Essex.

Horizon Nuclear Power, owned by Hitachi, is planning to build two 1.3GWe ABWRs at Wylfa, Anglesey, and at least two at Oldbury, Gloucestershire.

NuGeneration is intending to build three Westinghouse AP1000s at the Moorside site at Sellafield, Cumbria.

For more information, see the developers page.

UK new build map

Supply chain opportunities

UK companies, from top-tier suppliers to specialist SMEs, can potentially supply around 60 per cent by value of the work required for this new generation of nuclear power stations. To compete, many companies will have to develop new capabilities and build new relationships with industry leaders.

The civil nuclear supply chain presents particular opportunities for the metals industries. A nuclear power station contains many tens of thousands of tonnes of steel in a variety of forms. Examples include:

  • Reactor pressure vessels, turbine rotors, and other components which use major forgings and castings.
  • Construction steels for the containment structure.
  • Precision-engineered components such as high-pressure seals, pumps and valves.

Only a relatively small portion of the total power station requires nuclear-specific quality requirements. The bulk of plant has similar requirements to other power generation industries.

Companies in the top tier are working with UK suppliers to build a supply chain, and are inviting companies to register their interest. For more information, go to the following supply chain portals:

For more information on the new build programme and the history of nuclear development in the UK, see the World Nuclear Association’s paper on Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom.